Immigrant. It enacted no major labor or immigration restrictions for A-8 countries. Derbyshire saw a 121 percent rise in hate crimes in the first week following the EU referendum while Nottinghamshire experienced a 140 percent increase. In 1941, the 1.5 million Poles that were deported to the Soviet Union joined the Second Polish Corps and were later incorporated into the British army. This exchange was similar to a 1980s assessment of Poles entering the UK after the Second World War, courtesy of the 1947 Polish Resettlement Act: “People wanted to know what we thought…and they began to accept us. immigration to the UK was 172,000, only just below the figure of 191,000 for non-EU immigrants. This is especially true in the UK. Less than three months after the vote, Arek Jozwik, a Polish man, was violently killed in Harlow by a group of six men (25). Proponents of Brexit claimed that it would reduce the large numbers of immigrants, including Muslims, Syrians, and Polish people—and that leaving the EU would allow the U.K. to allocate money to the National Health Service, NHS. The most recent figures from the Office of National Statistics in the UK put net immigration at 244,000 in the twelve months to September 2017. Furthermore, many Poles do not necessarily feel threatened by xenophobia that is not specifically targeting Poles. The policy, which UKIP leaders and followers have opposed, are a series of special considerations for immigrants from “A8 countries” where restrictions to their movement were limited, contrary to the practice of most other Western European countries. This can be seen in the rise of homophobic attacks in the UK, which rose by 147%, as measured three months following the Brexit vote (29). As a result, approximately 70 percent of migrants from the A-8 have gone to either Ireland or the UK, with Poland taking on the largest share of this 70 percent. Brexit; Polish migration; racism; xenophobia; migrant women Introduction After months of anti-immigrant rhetoric in the run up to EU referendum in the UK in June 2016, the number of racially aggravated offences recorded by the police in the same month was 41 per cent higher than in July 2015 (Home Office 2016). A bizarre, tragically comic exchange that illustrates the confusing battle of prejudice between class and race featured a Leave voter that explained his decision to a British reporter of South Asian descent. What can a post-Brexit Britain hope to achieve on migration policy? A surge in the number of Polish people and other European citizens leaving the UK since the Brexit vote means there has been an 84,000 drop in net migration to … Poles in the UK have a history that stretches beyond Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004. Diplomacy & Diversity Fellowship, Migration, Despite all assurances that the vote is a reaction to the yoke of continental Europe, the desire of the leave voters is to reject more than just the immigrants from poorer EU countries, particularly some of the liberal values such as multiculturalism and tolerance for sexual identity that were thought to be a widely accepted norm of Western Europe. More than 75 percent voted to leave the EU, the biggest margin of victory for "Brexit" in the country, after a campaign focused on calls to curtail immigration. New border controls that will make it harder for serious criminals to enter the UK will be introduced in the event of a no deal Brexit, the government has announced today (4 September). However, this tendency has changed somewhat in the current xenophobic climate of the UK. Hateful comments on social media were accompanied by direct abuse from patrons at restaurants and patients at hospitals (22). For Great Britain, it was a “portmanteau for every British reservation expressed about postwar European cooperation and integration.” (1). Polish language magazines are displayed at a Polish delicatessen in Grays, England, December 11, 2015. Asylum numbers in the UK are already extremely low compared with the rest of Europe. The second conclusion was that hate crimes against all marginalized groups, some of whom were not even directly related to Brexit complaints, spiked. Poland – immigration status of UK nationals after Brexit By Malgorzata Grzelak on January 17, 2019 Posted in Immigration The Polish Government published on 11 January 2019 a first draft of the bill regulating terms of stay of UK nationals and their family members in Poland as a consequence of Brexit. Brexit may also affect the immigration policies of Ireland and Denmark, which, along with the UK, have traditionally opted out of EU directives on immigration and visa liberalisation policies due to the provisions of the protocol of the Treaty of Amsterdam. When they discovered that we are a hard-working lot, they began to like us, I think.” (3) The uncertainty in the quote is deeply relevant as those that insisted the Poles were secure in the Great Britain, both from unemployment, deportation, and prejudice, were in for a rude shock in the days surrounding the Brexit vote. While the ruling party in Poland, the Law and Justice (PiS) Party, continues to promote Euroscepticism, and nationalism, there are nearly one million Poles in the United Kingdom (UK) that benefit greatly from the EU and its subsequent easing of immigration to the UK and other European nations. Sara Benedi Lahuerta and Ingi Iusmen (University of Southampton) carried out research among Polish nationals in Southampton, who explained how an increasingly hostile climate has affected them. The Polish ambassador to the UK has written to Poles living in Britain urging them to “seriously consider returning to their homeland” after Brexit, and as Poland’s economic surge continues. Here’s why Migration Watch got their study on post-Brexit immigration wrong; Who can stay in the UK after Brexit? Policy. For example, the Polish Express Newspaper, sponsored a migrant workers strike in response to increased policy discussions against illegal immigration. Share this article via facebook Share this article via twitter Share this article via messenger. Opinion analysts say current worries over Brexit (now the top concern, along with the National Health Service, in opinion polls) may have replaced — or absorbed — past anxiety over immigration. Andrew Nocon. Immigration and asylum seekers in the UK: Facts and figures. While the response to Brexit was no doubt motivated by a type of fear and subsequent bigotry, it is important to remember that the origin of Brexit was deeply related to the migration of Eastern European workers. Published 10 August 2018. More than 800,000 people living in Britain were born in Poland — the largest immigrant group in the UK after immigrants from India. In the weeks prior to the eagerly anticipated Brexit vote, the Polish capital of Warsaw seemed far removed from the drama that was engulfing Great Britain. The discourse around the role that race and ethnicity have played in migrant decision-making has largely focused on non-white racial groups and linked residential decisions to discrimination and racism in multiple domains. Migration: Needed but not wanted, The Economist, October 1, 2016, accessed October 10, 2016, Saara Koikkalainen, “Free Movement in Europe: Past and Present,” Migration Policy Institute, April 21, 2011 accessed September 10, 2016,, Sam Jones, “Birth rate pushes UK population to greatest increase in almost 50 years,” The Guardian, August 27, 2009 accessed September 10, 2016, Adrienne Mahsa Varkiani, “The Rise in Hate Crimes in the U.K. After Brexit Should Scare You,” ThinkProgress, June 28, 2016 accessed September 5, 2016,, Oliver Wright, “Euroscepticism on the rise across Europe as analysis finds increasing opposition to the EU in France, Germany and Spain,” The Independent, June 7, 2016, accessed September 10, 2016 As it turned out, it was a mandate for hateful behavior. However, the increase in some of the most Eurosceptic parts of the country was even more acute. ... To create content that educates, informs and inspires. Brexit could be painful for their pockets. Because of this development, most European countries were fearful of a large wave of immigrants that sought higher wages abroad. The migration of immigrants from low wage countries within the European continent, specifically Eastern Europe, was seen to exacerbate unemployment and deflation in the UK as well exhaust the tolerance British residents. A post referendum analysis that emphasizes the role of the 2004 EU accession and the subsequent rise in immigration enables better preparedness for the further ethnic, religious, racial, and cultural tensions that will afflict the western world. Daily Mirror misrepresents research on public support for Brexit; Claim that extending the Brexit transition period could cost £380 billion is not credible; Claim that 7.7% of UK goods exports go to the EU is a big underestimate Brexit changed immigrant perceptions for the better: Study. Euroscepticism, which now is a specific term to many Western European countries, refers to the doubt that many countries feel in the power and efficacy of the EU. We are 100% Neutral Brexit content. The conference was focused on the different ways of using statistics to answer multiple questions on Brexit. Polish language magazines are displayed at a Polish delicatessen in Grays, England, December 11, 2015. “A Reluctant Welcome? Prejudice against immigrants helped drive Brexit. A silent vigil in Mr. Jozwik’s honor led to two additional assaults against British Poles, further illustrating the huge challenges facing the Polish community in the UK (26). The government estimates there are 984,000 Polish nationals living in Britain – an increase of 141,000 on 2014’s figures. The actual proportional increases of Poles after EU accession in 2004, a gain of 750,000 over the course of a decade, is less extreme than the increase that occurred due to the 1947 Polish Resettlement Act when nearly 200,000 Poles were resettled in a single year. Britain’s 850,000 Polish citizens face backlash after Brexit vote. Priti Patel has defended the Government's new immigration points system as she insisted it was 'not the end of the Polish builder'. Although the previous study shows that there is a notably rising number of racist hate He explains that he has a preference for other English-speaking immigrants such as those from India and Australia who are “naturally more likely to understand common law, and have a connection with this country than some people that come perhaps from countries that haven’t fully recovered from being behind the iron curtain.” The insinuation of his “iron curtain” remarks were further validated by his belief that present immigration policy “discriminates in favor of people from Poland, or Romania, or Bulgaria.” (10) This speaks to a type of class discrimination that looks unfavorably on immigrants of low skills and harkens to the negative stereotyping of all post communist countries as being incompatible with an English-speaking, capitalist world. (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2015.) He didn't vote for Brexit, but says he knows why people are worried about immigration. Top Stories. According to the Office for National Statistics roughly forty percent of immigrants from A8 countries—countries which joined the European Union in 2004—are overqualified for their jobs and twenty-four percent hold university degrees. To paraphrase the views of many public policy experts, Polish workers were largely taking jobs that locals would never do. Yet this topic has remained very much on the sidelines of the Brexit debate. A new immigration system will apply to people arriving in the UK from 1 January 2021 and EU citizens moving to the UK to work will need to get a visa in advance. Brexit changed immigrant perceptions for the better: Study. Racism, Getting rid of Polish plumbers and Spanish waiters could potentially translate into a shortfall of cheap labor in these crucial industries. Prejudice against immigrants helped drive Brexit. Center for Research on Prejudice, Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw. “It was feared that unlimited labor migration from the A-8 would cause serious problems for the labor markets of the EU-15.”. EU immigrants are more educated, younger, more likely to be in work and less likely to Andrew Nocon. of Polish immigrants living in the UK in the face of a significant political change –the Brexit vote. The increased incidence of hate crimes in the UK showcased two conclusions. In the hours and days following the Brexit vote, there were incidents of racist graffiti on the stores and homes in the Polish quarters of several English cities, including in London and Cambridgeshire (21). However, an independent focus on either of these issues ignores that a third issue compounds both, which is that Euroskepticism is inherent in the very expression itself. The U.K.’s new points system will keep low-skilled non-English speakers out, pleasing pro-Brexit voters but devastating entire sectors—from agriculture to health care. One was that there was a link between Euroscepticism and racial or bigoted animus. After the war, in 1947, they were brought to Britain along with some Poles that were freed from concentration camps. After months of anti-immigrant rhetoric, the Brexit vote led to a 41 per cent surge in ... 30,000 British companies whose owners or directors are Polish citizens. After Brexit, those figures are likely to go down, not up. Published 3 June 2018. The vote by the British people on the 23rd of June concerning Britain’s membership of the European Union resulted in a more towards separation. The author and editor thank Pelin Ekmen for her dedicated efforts in reviewing earlier versions of this article. The Brexit vote should have been a peaceful way to exercise concern for the Great Britain’s relationship with the EU. The backlash has had many parallels to racial violence in the United States, with a growing fear among the Polish community in England that Polish officers are insensitive to the fears within their community. jon357 63 | 15,378. What are the post-Brexit immigration rules? Required fields are marked *. Consider making a gift today. Hate crimes against all marginalized groups, some of whom were not even directly related to Brexit complaints, spiked. May 18, 2020; Polish Prime minister Mateusz Morawiecki and Ambssador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Poland to the Court of st. James’s, Prof. Arkady Rzegocki during a meeting with the Polish community in London. Confederation, a far-right Polish party, is crusading against foreign workers. When almost 17.5 million people voted for Brexit, concerns about immigration were at the forefront of many of their minds. An immigrant's tale: Leaving Britain to escape Brexit hostility Berwyn, a neighbour of the couple, who moved to the UK in the 1980s from Australia, says goodbye to Maria after a visit at her home. Many Polish media outlets, some connected to PiS, also took a harsh anti-migrant line. Poles in Britain in the 1940s.” (London: Oral History, 1996.), “Ladies in Black,” The Economist, October 15, 2016, accessed October 18, 2016, Heather Horn, “Is Eastern Europe Any More Xenophobic Than Western Europe,” The Atlantic, October 16, 2015 accessed September 10, 2016, John Shattuck, “Lift Central Europe’s historical amnesia,” Boston Globe, September 9, 2015, Accessed October 20, 2016, Andras Schweitzer. Whilst from a research perspective conducting additional interviews with Polish EU nationals appeared to be the logical progression to my research on residential decision-making before Brexit, working closely with a number of gatekeepers within the local Polish community across Greater Manchester, illustrated the tentative and insecure nature that Brexit had impacted on the Polish population. You might add, how will Brexit affect Poland? "I think Mansfield probably historically isn't used to a lot of immigration, you know, on that side. Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC), the UK Data Service provides access to international social, economic and population data. Understanding the Brexit Vote: The Impact of Polish Immigrants on Euroscepticism, Menno Spiering, British Euroscpeticism. The only difference is that Polish citizens will be tied to stay for only one year, thanks to a temporary non-renewable visa. It looks like the government's immigration system after Brexit will make the process for EU migrants the same as for people coming from the rest of the world. Brexit: The immigration number that matters If Britain leaves the European Union, it's likely to be because of immigration. Furthermore, the fact that this backlash occurs after, rather than before, a clear majority exercised their will shows how long lasting these racial tensions were. 128. It looks like the government's immigration system after Brexit will make the process for EU migrants the same as for people coming from the rest of the world. I previously described that my initial impact idea was focused on interviewing Polish people to find out how last summers’ referendum vote had contributed to their future residential decision-making. As a result, Poland has overtaken India as the most common non-UK country of birth among UK residents (2). Immigration was one of the central defining arguments for Brexiteers during the 2016 Referendum campaign meaning that Brexit will be proactive about enacting change in this area. If you have right of abode, you don't need permission under the immigration rules or EU law to live in the UK. Poles in the UK have a history that stretches beyond Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, something that can further the arguments of those who either discuss the detailed history of Polish integration as well as the severe systemic racism this community has suffered. Data for Good - an ESRC Festival of Social Science workshop, © COPYRIGHT 2012-2020 UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX, UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER AND JISC. More to follow in the forthcoming months! Sajid Javid pledges 'fresh look' at migration rules. While the ruling party in Poland, the Law and Justice (PiS) Party, continues to promote Euroscepticism, and nationalism, there are nearly one million Poles in the United Kingdom (UK) that benefit greatly from the EU and its subsequent easing of immigration to the UK and other European nations. However I am currently working closely with a number of different voluntary organisations and charities in Greater Manchester to construct an impact event where I can collect data on the factors that contribute to Polish peoples residential decisions but also address some of the concerns attendees have regarding Brexit. If you are one of the millions Polish citizens living in the UK you will find this information very useful. The migration of immigrants from low wage countries within the European continent, specifically Eastern Europe, was seen to exacerbate unemployment and deflation in the UK as well exhaust the tolerance British residents, both for immigrants from other European countries as well as from countries in Africa and Asia. Interview with Anna Stefaniak. My talk extended to discuss some of the uncertainty many of my respondents felt regarding the Brexit outcome and how it might affect their future migration decision-making. After Brexit, the Home Office will open a new voluntary immigration scheme – the European temporary leave to remain (Euro TLR) Scheme – to provide a route to apply for this immigration status. 12 Apr 2016 #3. As is apparent in my research biography and previous blog post, my Ph.D. focuses on Polish post-accession people’s residential patterns and decision-making. This focuses on two recent conferences that I have attended where I have spoken about my research to different audiences and its association with Brexit. And why Szydło (well, Kaczyński really) climbed down after all … The most likely to do so are those who emigrated only three or four years ago, and still have a strong relationship with people left in Poland. Immigrants and their descendents are allegedly being stopped in the street and 'ordered to leave Britain' According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), “between 1990 and 2012 almost 20 million people moved from central, eastern, and south-eastern Europe to richer countries in [W]estern Europe.” (4) Later, in 2004 when eight Eastern European countries joined the EU, migration to Western Europe increased. Rohit Sudarshan. How will Brexit affect UK immigrants in Poland? Laminated A call for the inclusion of more policeman of Polish origin has been one of the few ways to counteract the fears of the community. The “undercurrent of negative attitudes against Poles” (23) that have been expressed in newspapers since Poland joined the EU have fueled a response from Polish newspapers in the UK. Rohit Sudarshan wrote “Understanding the Brexit Vote: The Impact of Polish Immigrants on Euroscepticism” as part of the 2016 Humanity in Action Diplomacy and Diversity Fellowship. Your email address will not be published. Nigel Farage, the leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) party of England, confessed that there were factors above the typical racial preference regarding his immigration beliefs. The big increase in EU immigration occurred after the ‘A8’ East European countries joined in 2004. Polish immigrants are particularly susceptible to the attacks. 79. Brexit and immigration – what are the new immigration rules? A perception had built up over the decade leading to Brexit that Britain was a country out of control. While the more centrist and progressive parties ask these Eastern European nations to accept more refugees, parties on the far right frequently describe the close-mindedness of Eastern European countries as a justification to restrict their movement westward (13). It appeared, however, intuitive that given the referendum decision and wider interest in the outcome and the after affects of Brexit that I would discuss some of my more recent impact work relating to Brexit. The Polish Government published on 11 January 2019 a first draft of the bill regulating terms of stay of UK nationals and their family members in Poland as a consequence of Brexit. If like me, you’re still struggling to get to grips with what Brexit means and how to engage and digest with all the different debates, discussions and points of view, it makes sense to write this blog post about my recent impact work and how it is associated with Brexit. Brexit had placed Polish migrants in a precarious position where their legal rights and position in the UK was fragile and uncertain and therefore it has become even more important to create a piece of impact work that was dually beneficial. Although the previous study shows that there is a notably rising number of racist hate Many Britons think of Polish immigration as a recent phenomenon. The Immigration Minister, Caroline Nokes, told the BBC that she was committed to making “evidence-based policy” and the government was waiting for advice from the Migration Advisory Committee, an independent public body which advises the government on migration issues. A writer recently explained asked “why other European countries (have) forgotten that many of their citizens were once refugees,”  an attitude that is considered “historical amnesia.” (14), This dissonance between the discrimination of Poles in Western Europe and the xenophobia that is validated by Polish voters is best articulated by a second generation Polish American, who summarized the EU’s eastern states as “intolerant, narrow-minded, and xenophobic.” He continues that “for centuries their forbears emigrated en masse to escape from material misery and political persecution.” (15) It seems, after a comparison between Eastern and Western Europe, that universal lessons and teachings need to apply to both. Their specific qualities, which included a very different language and a willingness and interest in working in low wage jobs threatened the perceptions of stability for the British worker. New chapter: Poland – UK relations after Brexit. Since Poland’s accession to the EU in 2004, Polish-born residents now account for well over 800,000 people, an addition of close to 750,000 people. If you are an unqualified worker, Theresa May has confirmed that Polish citizens who arrive in the UK with the intention of carrying out unskilled jobs can do so freely until 2025 even with the absence of a work contract. At the time of accession, these 8 countries, which included Poland as well as other Baltic States and Eastern European nations, were notably poor countries by EU standards. Warsaw, September 4, 2016. However, in speaking with Polish experts, it was clear that the intrigue had not turned to fear. In the days following the UK’s decision to leave the EU, there was a 57 percent increase across in the nation in hate crimes, as reported by the National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC). My previous employment has been within the asylum and refugee sector and therefore elements of participation and researches tangible benefit to the study’s participants and the wider community were essential. These violent incidents were a focal point beyond the UK and Poland as EU Commission President Jean Claude Juncker spoke out against the attacks, explaining how the events show that “the [EU] doesn’t have enough union; there are splits out there and fragmentation exists, leaving scope for galloping populism.” (27). Dagmar Myslinska’s research on Polish migrants brings a better understanding of the circular, temporal, and open-ended nature of free movement which has affected the UK so profoundly. Derbyshire, for example, saw a 121 percent rise in the first week following the EU referendum while Nottinghamshire experienced a 140 percent increase. “Eastern Europe’s hard attitude to refugees is born out of trauma,” The Guardian, October 22, 2015, Roisin O’Connor, “Brexit: Polish Embassy responds after spark in reports of hate crime and racial abuse,” The Independent, June 27, 2016, accessed September 20, 2016, “Polish media in UK shocked by post-Brexit hate crimes,” BBC News, June 26, 2016 Accessed September 10, 2016 Additionally, debates during the ‘Radical Statistics’ conference highlighted the lack of available data to address post Brexit questions and made salient small scale and local data collection. A new study reports anti-immigrant sentiment softened among both Leave and Remain camps after the 2016 referendum. Most pieces have tied the negative views of the EU to two issues: one, the prolonged financial slump that followed the 2008 financial crisis, and the other, the poor handling of the Syrian refugee crisis (8). The conference was focused on multiple themes within the discipline of sociology. As can be seen in the case of Brexit, the impetus for xenophobic violence lies within the European continent. Dagmar Myslinska’s research on Polish migrants ... resentment that has bubbled to the surface from both non-white british & white british people born in UK regarding mass immigration from Poland and other east european countries since 2004. After explaining that he wanted immigrants out of the UK and whether his focus was on his Eastern Europeans, he said that he didn’t mean “Pakis” who were “not foreigners,” merely people with “the same hearts, just different colored skin.” (7) The exchange was hardly an endorsement of racial sensitivity in Great Britain, but perhaps showed a level of slightly more comfort towards the South Asian immigrants of Great Britain than those from Poland, whose presence in the UK is perceived as more recent. The second conference was the British Sociological Association Conference 2017 held at the University of Manchester between April the 4th and the 6th. Invest in leaders who build bridges in societies that drift apart. Yet this topic has remained very much on the sidelines of the Brexit debate. My talk focused on presenting the internal migration patterns of Polish people in England and Wales as evidence of their residential patterns prior to Brexit. “A Reluctant Welcome? The irony of the animosity that Poles face in Great Britain is that the nationalism and xenophobia that UKIP has exploited politically is similar to that of the PiS party in Poland, which remains extremely popular notwithstanding a recent controversy over restricting abortion in cases of rape and incest (11). A ll EU nationals currently living in Britain will be allowed to stay following Brexit, after the Home Office discovered that five in six could not legally be deported.. Both counties were among the several counties of central UK with a majority vote to leave (28). In 2015 29% of EU immigrants were Polish. community center, an institution in immigrant-rich West London for five decades, they were greeted by an ugly message. “Poland overtakes India as country of origin, UK migration statistics show,” BBC News Aug. 25, 2016, accessed September 20, 2016