The work of art is thus a “force field” of conflicting tensions. In his Introduction to Sociology (2000), and other works, Adorno stated his opposition to civic passivity and his support for progressive reform. 97 Critical Theory of bringing about an ill-fated unity between subject and object. All its members showed an explicit interest in abolishing not merely social injustice but the psychological, cultural, and anthropological sources of unhappiness. This was the context in which open deliberation became a value in its own right, the aggrieved masses employed their common sense, and individuals exercised their civil rights. The money was given at the urging of his son, Felix, who considered himself a “salon Bolshevik.” Felix Weil’s close friends included Kurt Albert Gerlach. Political consciousness on the part of the working class is lacking due to the real failings of communism, the seeming affluence of Western capitalism, and—perhaps above all—the culture industry. Plato’s Apology tells how Socrates was condemned by the Athenian citizenry for corrupting the morals of the young and doubting the gods. In The Jargon of Authenticity (1964), for example, Adorno insists that even existential phenomenology standardizes experience and that ontologically structured intuitions—especially of the sort connected with dying and death—substitute individuation for individuality. Anti-Semitism is viewed as an expression of humanity’s “second nature” with anthropological roots. What became known as “critical theory” was built upon this legacy. The two friends broke over various aesthetic and philosophical matters in the late 1920s. Utopia is the only response to alienation or, better, the existential problems that plague us and the anthropological foundations of our existence. The division of labor expresses this situation. Horkheimer finished high school after World War I. These two thinkers provided the framework for the critical project that later became identified with the Institute for Social Research—or “the Frankfurt School.” The Frankfurt School initially believed that its intellectual work would aid the practical prospects for revolutionary action by the proletariat. The iron cage of bureaucracy was seemingly bringing about the “end of the individual.” This was the vision depicted by Horkheimer in The Eclipse of Reason (1940). Translated by Harry Zohn. The 24 aim was to understand a fact within the value-laden context wherein it assumes meaning. All of them provide a trenchant critique of communist totalitarianism and technological progress. Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Abromeit, John, and W. Mark Cobb, eds. His critical social psychology was thus predicated on articulating and affirming anti-capitalist values and progressive possibilities for individual development. “On Jazz” exhibits a profound cultural pessimism. In turn, however, such philosophical interrogation would generate other interpretations. Critical theory thereby lays itself open to caricature: its negation appears as the liberator incapable of either identifying the form that liberation should take or dealing with the embrace of oppression by the oppressed. Old-fashioned criteria for making judgments, constructing narratives, and understanding reality thus become anachronistic. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008. ————. There is hardly a word about John Locke, Gotthold 58 Lessing, Voltaire, Benjamin Franklin, or Tom Paine. Schmitt, Richard. New York: Seabury Press, 1973. ————. The study smacks of mass education and adaptation to establishmentarian standards. Their Marxism was of a different variety. Empowerment of the exploited rested upon consciousness, education, and practical experience. Its members posed many criticisms of modern life and the culture industry. Aesthetic Theory (1969) projects notions of subjectivity, freedom, and utopia that resist all objectification. He viewed this realm as mediating between the organized political institutions of the state and the economic forces of civil society. Jürgen Habermas analyzed this in his groundbreaking first book, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere (1961). He then became an itinerant writer and never held a steady job. Yet its members were decidedly modernist in their inclinations. Radicalized by the Russian Revolution, inspired by the spontaneous upsurge of soviets and workers’ councils, Korsch fostered a blueprint for radical economic democracy in his pamphlet What Is Socialization? Its critical character and its ability to project an emancipated alternative therefore necessarily diminish. New York: Schocken, 1985. Includes index. His vision contested their pessimism and, later, challenged young people to broaden their minds and embrace ethical idealism of a new sort. Rabinbach, Anson. Critical Theory criticism of Freudian “revisionism” that first appeared in the pages of Dissent (1956) and ultimately served as the appendix to Eros and Civilization. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance. The best life contests every currently alienated moment of the totality. His outlook was eschatological, but it was never reducible to faith or symbols. Its most politically conservative members still viewed subjectivity as enmeshed within what it resisted: the commodity form, mass culture, and the bureaucratic society. Public opinion was a source of empowerment: it tended to protect the individual from the arbitrary power of regimes still wavering between monarchy and republicanism. Like other members of the Frankfurt School, indeed, he was deeply concerned with how it prefabricates experience and nullifies critical thinking.