[98], The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. On 21st April 2020 she became 94 years old. [156] She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007. [56], During 1951, George VI's health declined, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong. The British Monarchy is known as a constitutional monarchy. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. Great grandson of … [117], Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, not all of which were entirely true. (adsbygoogle=window.adsbygoogle||[]).push({}); You have entered an incorrect email address! [164][165] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world. Lord Mountbatten claimed the Queen was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard. Eden resigned two months later. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. The Queen, at the age of 94, is a mother, grandmother and great-grandmother. [223] In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother. 160–163; Hardman, pp. As of March 2020, Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning queen of England at 93 years old. [204] After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age". [102], A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals. The Queen’s dog Vulcan has died, leaving the monarch with only one pet by her side. Queen Elizabeth II is the longest-reigning British monarch, and today is her official birthday. [30] In February 1945, she was appointed as an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873. [41] She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947. [58] Martin Charteris asked her to choose a regnal name; she chose to remain Elizabeth, "of course". [68], Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March, the coronation on 2 June 1953 went ahead as planned, as Mary had asked before she died. [136] Two days later, Prime Minister John Major announced reforms to the royal finances planned since the previous year, including the Queen paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list. ; Prince Charles, the queen's firstborn, is 16 years older than Prince Edward, the youngest.Charles is 72, and Edward is 55. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public. Besides the inheritances she owns as of the Queen, she also has a considerable personal property which she has inherited from her father King George VI, as well as the Queen Mother Elizabeth. Visits included The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall in Australia, Canada, New … On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session. Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom. [52] The Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII, was not invited either. [59] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince. [45][46] In later life, however, the Queen Mother told biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman". Parliamentary laws were amended to make her a Counsellors of State in the absence of her father, King George VI. [99] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Additional styles include Defender of the Faith and Duke of Lancaster. [216], Elizabeth has been portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett, and Tai-Shan Schierenberg. [135] In an unusually personal speech, the Queen said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding". As a constitutional monarch, the Queen is head of state, but her executive powers are limited by constitutional rules. When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon. [157] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, the Queen attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales. 349–350, However, occasionally claims are made about her political opinions. [198], She is patron of over 600 organisations and charities. Even before she became the queen, Queen Elizabeth undertook public duties during the Second World War. 256–260; Roberts, p. 84, Brandreth, p. 374; Pimlott, pp. 623–624, Bond, p. 156; Bradford, pp. Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital in order to assassinate Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William. [161] By invitation of the Irish President, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011. Times are now the only honest brokers of reality. The report said that Tahilramani, a 41-year-old … The British government also grants an annual privy purse worth about $13 million for personal expenses to the Queen. 572–577; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 168, Brandreth, p. 358; Hardman, p. 101; Pimlott, p. 610, Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Marr, p. 338; Pimlott, p. 615, Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 358; Lacey, pp. [97] In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, she also instituted new practices. November 17, 1558: Death of Mary I, Queen of England and Ireland. Beginning with her 1957 visit to the US and her addressed to the United Nations General Assembly, she has played an important and crucial role in world politics. For example after the, Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 180; Roberts, p. 82; Shawcross, p. 50, Bond, p. 35; Pimlott, p. 280; Shawcross, p. 76, Bond, pp. [61], With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. November 25, 1638: Birth of Catherine of Braganza, Queen Consort of England, of Scotland and of Ireland. [144] Afterwards, for five days the Queen and the Duke shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[145] but the royal family's seclusion and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace caused public dismay. [167] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781. [122] Belying reports of acrimony between them, Thatcher later conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen,[123] and the Queen gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major. [219], Elizabeth's personal fortune has been the subject of speculation for many years. Millions of people may be addressing her by the wrong title, however. 169–172, Brandreth, pp. Her height is 1.63 m tall, and her weight is 58 kg. [210] Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. [80] Throughout her reign, the Queen has made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she is the most widely travelled head of state. The royal family also owns all the unmarked swans in England. 195–207 and Shawcross, pp. Prince Philip, 99, is pictured holding the colourful A4 creation as the 94-year-old monarch looks on in a touching image By Camilla Tominey 20 Nov 2020, 10:10am Advertisement [141] Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself and the Queen's wider family rather than her own behaviour and actions. [194] She does have a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and takes her coronation oath seriously. [94][95] No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; the Queen's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted. 558–559; Roberts, p. 94; Shawcross, p. 204, Bradford, p. 229; Lacey, pp. She is the constitutional monarch, recognized by the British constitution and parliament. [88] In 1965 the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving her of involvement. [162], The Queen's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. [51] In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding. 621–622, Bond, p. 134; Brandreth, p. 359; Lacey, pp. melancholy, old age or blood poisoning. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. [163], She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf. [57] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of Kenya. [76] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established. [228] The British Crown Estate—with holdings of £14.3 billion in 2019[231]—is held in trust and cannot be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/.../What-happen-Queen-England-dies.html [149], In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee. 193–194; Pimlott, pp. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch. The royal couple had four children: Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales; Princess Anne; Prince Andrew, the Duke of York; and Prince Edward, the Earl of Essex. [172] A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth. 280–281; Shawcross, p. 76, Hardman, p. 22; Pimlott, pp. Her father King George VI ascended to the throne in 1936, and since then, she became the heir apparent. 159–161; Pimlott, pp. "[39], Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and 1937. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war. 114–117, Hardman, p. 310; Lacey, p. 387; Roberts, p. 101; Shawcross, p. 218, accession of the United Kingdom to the European Communities, Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten, the surname of his mother's British family, Commonwealth realm § From the accession of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth II's Address to the United Nations General Assembly, her associated national and Commonwealth tours, wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II, Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi, Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, television licences in the United Kingdom, "The World War II Auto Mechanic in This Photo Is Queen Elizabeth II.