These may be required for DNA fingerprinting, producing transgenic species, gene therapy, locating the position of a gene on a chromosome or for producing chemicals such as human insulin. Results from gametes being diploid (not haploid). Structural genes code for polypeptides that may produce structural proteins or enzymes. Animal conservation of endangered species e.g. The embryos cloned by tissue culture are dipped into a solution containing Agrobacterium that contain BT genes. Sommaire principal. Find your HSC Study Resources you need. Bookings for Term 3 school holidays 28/9 to 9/10 are OPEN: ‍ Module 5: Heredity - aimed at students starting year 12 in Term 4. DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis. Year 11 Biology Module 1. How to Get a Band 6 in HSC Biology Module 5: Heredity Tip #1: Take an Interest in Your Depth Study. – Breeding animals for higher quality food + improves efficiency of food production. Hampden-Sydney College offensive lineman Tyler Howerton '21 was named one of 12 finalists for the 2020 William V. Campbell... November 12, 2020 Compass Program: 10-Week Block in Review Hampden-Sydney College’s experiential learning program, Compass, boasts a roster of … gene therapy involves inserting healthy genes to replace defective genes. Receive study guides, note, exam tips and bits of wisdom from our tutors each month. Please. The new HSC is here, and you’ve got to study it. Artificial insemination and pollination introduce genes into a population → increases gene pool → increases biodiversity. Transposons result in new chromosomal rearrangements, which can change the way genes are expressed, increase variety and play a major role in evolution. A mutagen is a physical factor of chemical substance that causes mutations. These transposons may explain why bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics so rapidly, therefore influencing the bacterial genome. – Beef and dairy cattle have been cloned to increase food production in agriculture e.g. insulin, A new organism with an identical genome to that of the parent e.g. Year 11 Biology Sign up now $99 / year. For example, the Drosophila fruit fly has only one chromosome containing homeotic genes but most vertebrates have four clusters of homeotic genes on four different chromosomes. 4. Our extensive library of handy and helpful HSC Chemistry resources including past papers with worked solutions, study guides, study notes, essays written by students, assignments and many more, to help you prepare for the HSC Sometimes this causes a stop codon to occur early and the polypeptide is not produced at all. In the late 1890s, the most popular Australian wheat was Purple Straw, which grew strongly in good seasons, but was susceptible to drought and to rust fungus whenever a flood occurred. Organisms that are closely related and diverged from a common ancestor recently will have similar genes. Thus different results are produced: If crossing over occurs and genes undergo recombination, recombinant offspring may be produced alongside the parental types. Animals either use: i) Sexual reproduction. pollen blown to a new area. Module 7 | Infectious disease Content 3: Immunity Lesson 1 | Innate and adaptive immune system. after the next tRNA comes in, the first one leaves to be reloaded, Different coloured pegs – different bases, Threading objects onto ribbon – covalent bonds. We bring Dux College's years of knowledge and experience in bringing students HSC success with the convenience and focused attention of one-on-one home tutoring. E.g. Gene homologues are sequences of DNA that are very similar and occur in different organisms. Before Farrer’s and Guthrie’s varieties were grown, Australia’s wheat industry suffered greatly due to rust fungus. Biotechnology has unknown health effects = bad animal welfare e.g. The probes are mixed with DNA from samples (cloned through recombinant DNA technology) and heated so that DNA denatures. Terms in this set (62) Absorption. In a cross breeding experiment, ABC was crossed with abc and the percentages of recombination were observed. Substitution of a base occurs but different amino acid is coded for. Current research: nanoparticles which contain anti-cancer drugs are being delivered to cancer cells (without damaging healthy surrounding cells). Started by jamonwindeyer « 1 2 3 » 36 Replies 31778 Views: May 07, 2019, 09:03:43 am by jamonwindeyer: Physics MEGA THREAD. browse Study NOTES. DNA segments are then transferred to a nylon sheet through southern blotting, and radioactive dyes or coloured probes are added to produce banding patterns characteristic of the DNA fingerprint when exposed to X-rays. Module 3. Receive study guides, note, exam tips and bits of wisdom from our tutors each month. Gametic cells, or sex cells such as sperm and ova, contain the haploid number of chromosomes, which is half the diploid number. Farrer selected the best possible individual wheat plants and crossbred them with other suitable strains until he produced hardy plants whose flour was of excellent baking quality. Other examples of polygenic inheritance: skin colour in humans, colour in wheat kernels, egg weight in poultry, fleece weight in sheep. 0 Replies 6071 Views: January 17, 2017, 09:58:52 pm by jamonwindeyer: Practical experiments and investigation related questions. Content 1 Content 2 Content 3. The gene cascade for skeletal and neurological development in limbs is also a homologue. Module 7. Genes that are permanently switched off may be packed very tightly or high condensed. GM crops → increased crop productivity without destroying large amount of land → reduces land clearing → preserves habitats → conserves biodiversity. Substitution of a base occurs but same amino acid is coded for. Somatic mutations occur in body cells other than those of sex organs. Pushes all nucleotide out of order = incorrect polypeptide. Complicating things, it is often the Module that students get the least time with during the HSC year. The single strands from each organism are mixed and allowed to bind where the bases match. plants for nurseries and food, Lack of diversity – risk of extinction from new strain of disease or an environmental change, Uncertain – which characteristics are inherited, Certain – the new organisms is identical to the parent, except for environmental factors affecting gene expression, early-ripening, drought tolerance, short straw, more grains per stalk, good baking and milling quality, stiff straw, late maturing, early-ripening, drought tolerance, short and stiff straw, reasonable baking quality, susceptible to drought, late-maturing, soft for baking, high yield, early-ripening, drought tolerance, short and stiff straw, good brown heads, good baking quality, good yield, DNA in the area of the gene unwinds and unzips, assisted by DNA helicases. – Gene cloning = gene therapy: inserting gene into another organism’s cells to replace damaged genes that cause disease. Although Genetic Change may seem like a short module, it focuses on a few, complicated concepts. Contains more than 2 corresponding chromosomes. Module 5 - Heredity. Year 12 Biology. Looking for part 2, read the next part of this study guide: HSC English Module B Study Guide: T.S. Extra or missing chromosome usually from homologous chromosomes not separating in 1st meiotic division e.g. Working Scienficially skills relevant to the module are described. Eliot Part 2 [Free Textual Analysis]. Bookings for Term 3 school holidays 28/9 to 9/10 are OPEN: ‍ Module 5: Heredity - aimed at students starting year 12 in Term 4. Study Notes. Demonstrates double- and single-stranded chromosomes, Colour-coding of ribbon shows different genes, Different shades of colour show alleles of the same gene, No mechanism for segregation and separation (spindle fibres) during meiosis, Unlikely that only one gene is switched during crossing over as implied by switching ribbon– usually a segment of genes is involved, improve and develop tools for data analysis, address the ethical, legal and social issues that may arise from the project, improved diagnosis of inheritable diseases e.g. Researchers have been enclosing the healthy gene into liposomes to be inhaled through a nebuliser. Identifiez-vous si vous êtes un utilisateur enregistré. Test cross: A double heterozygous parent with a double homozygous recessive parent. E.g. In step 5 the plasmids enter the bacteria in 1 of 2 ways: i) Heat shock: Bacterial cells + recombinant plasmids + non-recombinant plasmids placed in cold solution → rapidly increase temperature → bacteria cell membrane is disrupted → plasmids enter bacteria. Science has come a long way since Mendel’s important work on identifying the transmission of inherited factors across generations. The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy. Gene regulation may also take place by shortening the life of the mRNA so that protein synthesis is stopped by removal of the protective caps. ... Dr Silvia Rudmann goes over some exam tips and gives advice on how to improve your marks in the HSC Biology exam in this Aurora College recording. Myoglobin is made up of one polypeptide and is coded for by one gene. HSC Biology Syllabus Notes Module 8 / Inquiry Question 2. Construct and interpret negative feedback loops that show homeostasis by using a range of sources, in… This is a set of HSC Biology dot-point summary notes for the Option Topic – Genetics: The Code Broken. Everyone realised that superior wheats bred by William Farrer and Frederick Guthrie should be celebrated for their high quality and used in the future. NOTE IVF is not artificial insemination since the egg is fertilised outside the body. Children with Down Syndrome are very susceptible to infectious diseases, have short stature and poor muscle tone, have a reduced life expectancy (50-60 years) and require help with motor skills, cognitive skills and speech. Heating double helices of DNA to be compared denatures them. Needed for diabetic patients. They produce proteins that bind to DNA and switch genes on and off. 1 Module 7: Infectious Disease. They are similar in structure and function, and expressed in similar sequences. Mendelian results are not produced, as the genes for the characteristics he investigated were all located on different chromosomes, leading to his theory of independent assortment. The content focus and subheadings describe the scope of learning. Bacterial insulin: Gene for insulin from the human pancreas was inserted into pig. The syllabus, assessment and reporting information and other support materials for the Biology course. Since it is polygenic, many genes control the inheritance of height and therefore many possible combinations are possible, leading to many phenotypes. GM animals may interbreed with native populations that have the same gene (transgene) as the GM animal → transgene becomes more abundant and other genes die out → decreases gene pool. The transport of dissolved substances into cells. The ability to detect and respond to stimuli is essential for survival. This way, the mistake is not present in other cells produced by mitosis of the mutant cell. HSC Book PDF Guide new version is available . The turning on and off of genes in a particular order is crucial for normal development. BT cotton). Genetic change. Crossing over. In the aftermath of the project, the biotechnology industry is able to research the development of new medical applications. Injection of sperm into an egg using a pipette. Please note, Module 8: Non-infectious diseases and disorders is BOOKED OUT for the Term 2 holidays. Currently, gene therapy to treat cystic fibrosis involves removing the normal gene from a non-CF-sufferer with restriction enzymes. Works great as an AP Biology Test Review: This resource is designed 9.2 – Compare the processes and outcomes of reproductive technologies, including but not limited to: – artificial insemination – artificial pollination, 9.3 – Investigate and assess the effectiveness of cloning, including but not limited to: – whole organism cloning – gene cloning, 9.4 – Describe techniques and applications used in recombinant DNA technology, for example: – the development of transgenic organisms in agricultural and medical applications, 9.5 – Evaluate the benefits of using genetic technologies in agricultural, medical and industrial applications, 9.6 – Evaluate the effect on biodiversity of using biotechnology in agriculture, 9.7 – Interpret a range of secondary sources to assess the influence of social, economic and cultural contexts on a range of biotechnologies. 1. Genetic abnormalities in embryos can be identified leaving parents with the choice to terminate pregnancy. Myoglobin carries limited oxygen and releases it easily. in non-coding DNA, or still producing the same amino acid) or beneficial (e.g. Scientists were so surprised at their results that they verified them with different samples of genetic material from flamingos and squat grebes. Introns: Non-coding parts of DNA that are removed when mRNA is produced. Regulatory proteins control the splicing. Digestion. Haemoglobin can carry more oxygen and transport it effectively throughout a large multicellular organism. File Type PDF Study Guide Heredity and study resources for Heredity and Genetics. There is no longer a need for pesticides. mutation in the extracellular domain of the RHD protein or mutation in the transmembrane of cytoplasmic domains that affects membrane integration. Breakages in chromosomes 15 and 21 can result in translocation Down syndrome (but not trisomy 21), the result of diploid or even triploid gametes being involved in fertilisation, non-disjunctions where all homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis. Tissue culture allows the cloning of plants of the same genetic variety. 3. NESA | NSW Education Standards Authority. Phenotypic ratio for F2 generation is 9:3:3:1. In high school, we understand different alleles to encode for proteins with different functions (like rabbit coat colour). 7.1 – Explain how a range of mutagens operate, including but not limited to: 7.2 – Compare the causes, processes and effects of different types of mutation, including but not limited to: – point mutation – chromosomal mutation, 7.3 – Distinguish between somatic mutations and germ-line mutations and their effect on an organism, 7.4 – Assess the significance of ‘coding’ and ‘non-coding’ DNA segments in the process of mutation, 7.5 – Investigate the causes of genetic variation relating to the processes of fertilisation, meiosis and mutation, 7.6 – Evaluate the effect of mutation, gene flow and genetic drift on the gene pool of populations.