Flowering is characterized by the exsertion of the first rice panicle in the crop . Width, Kernel – the distance across the kernel at the widest point. The redu … A recessive mutation, fzp (frizzy panicle) expresses an abnormal panicle duplicating infinite branching of the ra-chis without transition to the floral initiation stage (Mackill et al. Panicle Initiation and Differentiation Around this time of year we start seeing rice changing from the vegetative phase into the reproduc-tive one. We developed a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model that incorporated both the reflectance and growing degree-days (GDD) to account for differences in growing temperature conditions across a 3-year period. Brown rice consists mainly of the embryo and endosperm. Rice Growth and Development Introduction ... the tillers are shaded out and die shortly after panicle initiation (PI) and therefore do not produce panicles. under control and stressed conditions during PI stage. accompanied with panicle branch initiation ... analyses of the rice genome and cDNAs have rapidly pro-gressed (2, 3). The method of estimating the developmental stage necessary to prevent and analyze the cool damage in rice plants using meteorological elements was examined. ... growth.The rice plant is susceptible to salinity especially at the seedling stage and during the panicle development stage from panicle initiation to booting. Panicle initiation is the second best time to apply nitrogen to a rice crop with pre-permanent water being the most efficient. SeMet was also the main Se-species found in different subcellular parts at the panicle initiation stage. Rice yields can be reduced by up to 50% when grown under moderate (6 dS m–1) salinity levels (Zeng et al. A mini-plot 15 N-labelled test was performed at the same position in each of the plots. Moreover, rice yield traits respond differently to heat stress during panicle initiation, flowering and grain filling. Most of our current knowledge on initia-tion and morphogenesis of flowers is derived from analysis If the rice is sown directly (broadcast), the two stages combined are called the vegetative stage. 2 B and C), then it started to Sci. Y-Leaf Se speciation assays showed that SeCys and SeMet were the two main forms found in rice, of which SeMet accounted for 65.5%–100% in the ears and leaves, while SeCys accounted for 61.4%–75.6% in brown rice. beginning of the reproductive stage which occurs upon initiation of the panicle primordial. The aim of the drought stress treatment was to result in drying of the emerged panicles and for grain filling in those panicles to be aborted. Urea fertilizer was broadcasted at three stages (50% as a top dress before the maximum tillering stage, 25% as a top dress at the panicle initiation stage, and 25% at the ﬂowering stage). The main crops were subjected to drought by draining the field when the first genotypes entered panicle initiation stage at 59, 51, and 53 d after final sowing in 2017DS, 2017WS, and 2018DS, respectively. 2020 , 21 , x FOR PEER REVIEW 6 of 16 J. Mol. 2020 , 21 , 1080 7 of 17 Int. RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of two rice hybrids, Ajay (based on wild-abortive (WA)-cytoplasm) and Rajalaxmi (based on Kalinga-cytoplasm), and their respective parents at the panicle initiation (PI) and grain filling (GF) stages. At this point, the panicle is not visible to the naked eye. and sawdust were applied ten days before rice seedlings transplantation, while DAP was used during puddling operation as a basal dressing. Therefore, fine-tuning of meristem phase change at reproductive stage defines the size and architecture of the rice panicle (1). Photosynthesis is a major process for determining plant growth and development. Panicle initiation is the stage about 25 days before heading when the panicle has grown to about 1 mm long and can be recognized visually or under magnification following stem dissection. In rice, panicle and flower development is under environmental and genetic control; development of a mature flower from the stage of panicle initiation occurs in a step-wise manner over a four to five week period (Hoshikawa 1989). Vegetative stage includes the tillering. It is some times referred to as the green ring stage in rice (Figure 1-5). RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of two rice hybrids, Ajay (based on wild-abortive (WA)-cytoplasm) and Rajalaxmi (based on Kalinga-cytoplasm), and their respective parents at the panicle initiation (PI) and grain filling (GF) stages. ‘Panicle fertilizer’ is the fertilizer aiming to promote and protect spikelet and applied at panicle growth stage in rice. Box 3127, MCPO 1271, Makati, Philippines; and *Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, Tsul"ltOka, 997-8555 Japan Reproductive phase • The first sign that the rice plant is getting ready to enter its reproductive phase is a bulging of the leaf stem that conceals the developing panicle, called the ‘booting’ stage. 1991, Komatsu et al. The reproductive phase of rice goes from PI to anthesis, and dur- Seeds The rice grain, commonly called a seed, consists of the true fruit or brown rice (caryopsis) and the hull, which encloses the brown rice. Most varieties take 50–55 days from panicle initiation to harvest. J. Mol. Thus, this research aimed to study the temperature response of PSII efficiency in different Thai recommended rice cultivars at panicle initiation (PI) stage. Int. Plant Nutr.. 48 (2), 151-158, 2002 Water Uptake under Water Stress at Panicle Initiation Stage in Upland Rice as Affected by Previous Soil Water Regimes Kanako Okada!, Motohiko Kondo2, Ho Ando*, and Ken-ichi Kakuda* International Rice Research Institute, P.O. The number of mature pollen grains after chilling at the booting stage (12 °C for 5 d) was only 45% of total pollen grains in low-T w plants, whereas it was 71% in normal-T w plants (T Panicle initiation (PI) is a growth stage that represents the start of the reproductive phase in rice development. Soil Sci. reproductive phases (including panicle initiation and heading stages). Heat events will occur at all stages during the reproductive phase of rice as a result of global warming. 2002). Ground-based hyperspectral imaging was applied to rice plants at the panicle initiation stage to estimate nitrogen content. Furthermore, some rice mutants affecting panicle formation or grain number have been re-ported. Browse Titles Subjects SUBSCRIPTIONS AUTHORS LIBRARIANS ABOUT FAQ Mid season or reproductive stage: from panicle initiation to flowering; duration approximately one month. panicle initiation stage, flowering stage, milk stage and hard dough stage from 3 0 randomly selected plants/plot. genomic studies. During its reproductive phase, rice is susceptible to heat stress. Tillering means that several stems develop on one plant (Figure 22). Spikelet anthesis (or flowering) begins with panicle exertion (heading), or on the following day. RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the transcriptome of two rice hybrids, Ajay (based on wild-abortive (WA)-cytoplasm) and Rajalaxmi (based on Kalinga-cytoplasm), and their respective parents at the panicle initiation (PI) and grain filling (GF) stages. amined rice panicle traits. Then the tip of the developing panicle emerges from the stem and continues to grow. This difference can easily be noticed when examining sections of the stem from above and below the panicle initiation point. KEGG pathway incident of panicle initiation and grain ﬁlling stage in Rajalaxmi hybrid. panicle initiation, booting and heading stage) over each pot. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), chilling-induced male sterility increased when plants experienced low water temperature (T w, 18 °C for 14 d) before panicle initiation. N basal + ¼ N at active tillering stage + ¼ N at panicle initiation stage. The acquired images were divided into two … But what ex-actly is PI and why is it so impor-tant? The rice pictured above shows the rice plant on the left with a droopy panicle axis, and the rice plant on the rigth with a straight panicle axis. Rice panicle mor-phology is largely determined by the timing of identity transition among the different types of meristems (SI Appendix,Fig.S1). Jump to Content Jump to Main Navigation. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open Access The Initiation of Inferior Grain Filling is Affected by Sugar Translocation Efficiency in Large Panicle Rice Lin Chen1,2,3,4*, Yao Deng1,2, Honglei Zhu1,2, Yuxiang Hu1,2, Zhengrong Jiang1,2, She Tang1,2,3, Shaohua Wang1,2,3 and Yanfeng Ding1,2,3,4* Abstract Among weed management Direct seeding of rice in the Indo nutrient in determining the level of cro productivity of upland rice (Angiras, 2002) ... competition to the crop in early stage and cause heavy reduction in rice yield. The study was designed to evaluate salinity tolerance at panicle initiation stage and characterize the genetic diversity in a set of rice genotypes with different adaptation to saline soil using microsatellite markers (SSR markers). Heading date is characterized together by the vegetative growth phase i.e., the time period from germination to panicle initiation and the reproductive phase, meaning the time period from panicle initiation to heading . Of all the yield com-ponents, the number of panicles per unit area is the most easily ... tillering stage and triggers panicle initiation or reproduc-tive growth. Marker based Genetic Diversity of Rice Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance at Panicle Initiation Stage. Soil salinity is a serious constraint to The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) value was used as a reference data that indirectly reflects the nitrogen status in rice. The temperature plays important roles in plant photosynthesis. Moreover, transgenic rice plants can be rela- ... in the vegetative apical meristem at a very early stage of panicle development (Fig. We talk about topdressing and rice being now at the panicle initiation (PI) stage. Around 293 and 302 million high quality pa … 2001, 2003). It is when the actual panicle (terminal flowering head) begins to form in the base of the stem. inflorescence meristem to produce panicle. Waxy Rice – rice whose starch contains less than 2 percent amylose. Sci. Panicle Initiation (PI) – is the time when the panicle premordia initiate the production of a panicle in the uppermost node of the culm. SeMet was also the main Se-species found in different subcellular parts at the panicle initiation stage. Keywords Rice Salt stress Panicle initiation Microarray Introduction Rice is one of the most economically important crops of the world. reproductive stage: 1.