The Genome Project “far from fixing ‘proper’ human identity . New York: Oxford University Press. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social evolution. Hence, education can make a very fascinating research topic for those who are interested in studying the effe… DuCille, Ann. . Many of your students will have already thought about the role of gender in culture and in life, but they may not yet have experience thinking about gender through a sociological lens. Are there man and woman professions? For example, historically there was a category of people in the Navajo culture called berdaches, who were anatomically normal men but who were defined as a third gender considered to fall between male and female. However, most sociologists now view this functionalist approach as outdated and sexist, and there is now plenty of scientific evidence to suggest that the wage gap is influenced by deeply ingrained gender biases rather than by choices men and women make about family-work balance. 1970. The Making of Masculinities. Sociologists study the various aspects of education: the kind of education offered, the audience receiving that particular kind of education, the different problems, and solutions required to correct the same. Collins, Patricia Hill. “Interpreting Gender.” Signs 20:79–105. Determine the field that you find exciting. 2003. A list of the social issues include: religion, culture, sexuality, spirituality, gender, education, and social media among others. Giddens, Anthony. “Sexuality and Gender in Certain Native American Tribes: The Case of Cross-Gender Females.” Pp. New York: Science House. Betty Friedan’s (1963) popular best-seller, The Feminist Mystique, and Kate Millet’s (1970) Sexual Politics critiqued the oppressive nature of male/female relationships, and the numerous consciousness-raising groups as well as feminist groups that emerged from various left and civil rights organizations also mounted trenchant critiques. The Double Standard: A Feminist Critique of Feminist Social Science. The view from the antifeminist or nonfeminist women must not be simplistically dismissed as “false consciousness”; what is needed is to “know how they think as they do, how and in what terms and with what conflicts they experience their femininity” (Scott 1997:701). New York: Cornell University Press. Engendering Modernity: Feminism, Social Theory and Social Change. The former, sex, is understood by sociologists to be a biological categorization based on reproductive organs. “On the Reconceptualizing of Gender: Implications for Research Design.” Sociological Inquiry 74:302–17. Chrys Ingram (1994) maintains that the idea that “institutionalized heterosexuality constitutes the standard for legitimate and prescriptive sociosexual arrangements” is one of the “major premises” of sociology in general and of some “feminist sociology” (p. 204). Revisioning Gender. 2003. New York: Free Press. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. “Is Sociology Still Missing Its Feminist Revolution?” Perspectives: The ASA Theory Section Newsletter 18:1–3. “Discovering Sex: Medical Science, Feminism and Intersexuality.” Canadian Review of Sociology and. Feminism and Race. Spelman, Elizabeth. “To Interpret the World and to Change It: An Interview with Nancy Fraser.” Signs 29:1103–24. The challenge was not confined to the academy. 1986. Ingram, Chrys. Hird, Myra. Good Sociology Research Topics in Marriage and Family . Consequently, heterosexuality is something that has to be “imposed, managed, organized, propagandized, and maintained by force,” and lesbian existence and the lesbian continuum of “women-identified experience” throughout women’s lives has to be denied. Biological Politics. Parsons, Talcott. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. Dinnerstein, Dorothy. 1995. Do stereotypes influence our self-perception? Importantly, they also focus on how these social forces can be changed to create a just and equal society in which no one is penalized for their gender. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. Sexuality in the Field of Vision. Kessler, S. 1998. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. “Lenski Effects on Sex Stratification Theory.” Sociological Theory 22:258–68. 1986. According to Hird (2003), the intersexed, defined as “infants born with genitals that are neither clearly ‘female’ nor ‘male,’” (p. 1067) are estimated to comprise up to 2 percent of births. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 1988. It is accordingly, virtually impossible to bring them together within a logically coherent and consistent account of social life” (Yeatman 1986:160). “The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology.” Pp. Firestone, Shulamith. To the extent that the following concentrates largely on the work of Englishspeaking feminists, the somewhat contested epistemological status of the sex/gender distinction should be kept in mind. London, England: Routledge. 1979. Pleck, Joseph. New York: Macmillan. Durkheim, Émile. Feminism and Foucault: Reflections of Resistance. A critical issue for queer theorists remains the underlying question of how biology figures in these social constructions. Sociological Explanations of Deviant Behavior, Units of Analysis as Related to Sociology, What Is Gender Socialization? Sociologists West and Zimmerman popularized this approach with their 1987 article on "doing gender," which illustrated how gender is something that is produced through interaction between people, and as such is an interactional accomplishment. Sociologists within this subfield study a wide range of topics with a variety of research methods, including things like identity, social interaction, power and oppression, and the interaction of gender with other things like race, class, culture, religion, and sexuality, among others. Meanwhile biology, especially evolutionary biology, continues to retain a binary take on physical bodies based on the assumption of natural chromosomal, hormonal, and genital binary difference (Haraway 1991). 301–15 in Theorizing Feminism: Parallel Trends in the Humanities and Social Sciences, edited by A. C. Herrman and A. J. Stewart. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. “Mothers and Daughters.” Signs 7:200–22. 1983. Homosexuality and nationality: is there a correlation? Once you select your research topic on sociology, we can help you in getting your research done. New York: Elsevier. Configuring Gender: Explorations in Theory and Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. 1994. Oxford, England: Blackwell. Foucault himself was not particularly concerned with the gender of dominated subjects of a power/knowledge regime and did not take account of the “relations between masculinist authority” and, therefore, the gendered “language, discourse and reason” (Diamond and Quinby 1988:xv). This is not to say that differences between the two have been ignored by sociologists but that those differences were understood as immutable biological facts and that the social was, in the last instance, powerless to change.